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¿Término para el comportamiento de transferir problemas personales a otras personas y tratar de resolverlos allí?

¿Término para el comportamiento de transferir problemas personales a otras personas y tratar de resolverlos allí?


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Creo que mi pregunta es un poco difícil de expresar, pero he observado este tipo de patrón de comportamiento muchas veces y me gustaría saber si se acuñó en la ciencia cognitiva.

Como ejemplo, considere a un empleador que tiene problemas con la administración del tiempo: a menudo llega tarde e incluso falta a las citas. Ninguno de sus empleados tiene este tipo de problema, su equipo está funcionando bien. Sin embargo, el empleador obliga a su equipo a utilizar sistemas de seguimiento del tiempo.

Otro ejemplo: una persona con un problema con la bebida trata de manipular a sus amigos y familiares para evitar por completo los bares, fiestas y clubes, porque estos son los lugares donde la gente tiende a abusar del alcohol.

El patrón que veo es que una persona es incapaz de lidiar con un problema personal en particular y, en cambio, trata obsesivamente de asegurarse de que los demás no se acerquen al mismo problema. Las medidas para lograr esta protección a menudo no son racionales y exageradas.

Entiendo que a un nivel saludable, el comportamiento descrito puede ser beneficioso. Por ejemplo, si experimento una situación muy dolorosa y tengo la oportunidad de enseñar a otros cómo pueden evitar esa experiencia, entonces lo haría enérgicamente.

Sin embargo, me pregunto si hay un término que describa cuándo se aplica este comportamiento de manera irracional.


Hay un par de mecanismos de defensa que pueden encajar. Tenga en cuenta que estos mecanismos de defensa generalmente implican una negación inconsciente del problema, es decir, se aplican a personas que no admiten el problema en sí mismas.

Proyección:

… Una teoría en psicología en la que los humanos se defienden de los impulsos desagradables negando su existencia en sí mismos, mientras los atribuyen a otros. Por ejemplo, una persona que es grosera puede acusar constantemente a otras personas de ser groseras.

Alguien con un problema de administración del tiempo puede enfocarse constantemente y acusar a otros de llegar tarde, mientras que alguien con un problema con la bebida puede implicar que los que lo rodean tienen este problema en lugar de ellos mismos.

Formación reactiva:

… Un proceso defensivo (mecanismo de defensa) en el que las emociones y los impulsos que producen ansiedad o que se perciben como inaceptables son dominados por la exageración (hipertrofia) de la tendencia directamente opuesta.

Alguien con un problema de administración del tiempo puede promover activamente la importancia de la puntualidad y el seguimiento del tiempo, mientras que alguien con un problema con la bebida puede actuar como portavoz de las virtudes de la abstinencia.

Tenga en cuenta que el constructo de los mecanismos de defensa en general está desactualizado y ha sido reemplazado en gran medida por la teoría de la disonancia cognitiva.


Es posible que esté viendo casos de proyección psicológica, que es un método de negación en el que las personas se defienden de sus propios impulsos negativos atribuyéndolos a otros. De acuerdo con la teoría, es menos un problema de "defender" a otros para que no se acerquen al problema, y ​​más un acto de proyectar el problema en otros, o asumir que ellos también tienen el problema.

También existe el efecto de falso consenso, en el que las personas sobreestiman el grado en que los demás comparten sus creencias. Esto suele ir acompañado de la "proyección" de los rasgos de personalidad (incluidos los negativos) en los demás. A esta teoría se agrega la idea de que la supresión del pensamiento conduce a una mayor prominencia del pensamiento en particular, lo que lo hace más accesible cuando se ven otros. En otras palabras, alguien que trata de suprimir un rasgo o impulso negativo percibido podría inconscientemente buscarlo en otros, considerando que los pensamientos del impulso se hacen más accesibles mediante repetidos intentos de reprimirlos. (ver Newman, Duff y Baumeister (1997)).


Trazar el comportamiento de cambio donde el cambio es constante: Patrick Getzen, FSA, MAAA

Los cambios de carrera suelen seguir un hito importante y una promoción de mdasha, una oferta de trabajo, un nuevo título, tal vez una mudanza a otro país. Para Patrick Getzen, la exposición a nuevas perspectivas provocó un cambio.

Desde 2018, Patrick se ha desempeñado como director de datos y análisis de Blue Cross Blue Shield North Carolina (Blue Cross NC). Colabora con los capitalistas de riesgo y los líderes tecnológicos de Silicon Valley para resolver algunos de los problemas más importantes y de atención médica, como cómo abordar las profundas interrupciones tecnológicas en la recopilación e intercambio de datos de pacientes.

Patrick siempre ha tenido un gran interés en la economía del comportamiento y ha desarrollado un interés en la teoría de la gestión del cambio. Sus frecuentes viajes al norte de California le presentaron a muchas personas nuevas, que se sumaron a los profesionales que conocía y con los que trabajaba a nivel local. Estas relaciones validaron y empujaron su pensamiento sobre estos dos temas. Sus diferentes perspectivas rediseñaron su atlas actuarial, mientras que su comprensión holística de la atención médica lo ayudó a identificar nuevas oportunidades profesionales y perseguirlas con confianza.

"Los actuarios se encasillan en ciertos roles porque es fácil para una empresa colocarlos en esta caja de seguros", dice. & ldquoEn muchas industrias & mdashpero especialmente el cuidado de la salud & mdashsus habilidades en fijación de precios y valoración son importantes, pero pueden transferirse fácilmente al modelado de datos. & rdquo

Patrick había pasado las dos décadas anteriores siguiendo el camino actuarial tradicional, utilizando datos de reclamaciones, datos de membresía o contratación de proveedores para hacer predicciones. Pero comenzó a trazar un nuevo curso profesional una vez que comenzó a hacer nuevas preguntas: ¿Cómo se relaciona la economía del comportamiento con el análisis predictivo? ¿Cómo remodelará la tecnología la atención médica? ¿Cuál es la mejor manera de ayudar a las personas a adaptarse a esta disrupción?

A medida que comenzó a identificar los desafíos comerciales de Blue Cross NC & rsquos y cómo la analítica predictiva podría resolverlos, el cambio se convirtió en una consecuencia de su carrera y en el tema de su trabajo como director de análisis. Su resolución de problemas estimuló el crecimiento profesional y pudo aplicar estos nuevos intereses a una trayectoria profesional diferente.

La atención médica es una industria dinámica con problemas complejos que requieren soluciones multifacéticas, por lo que Patrick creó un equipo con diversas habilidades y experiencias: análisis, ciencia de datos, ingeniería, así como psicología y disciplinas comerciales.

Crear este nuevo equipo no fue fácil. La necesidad de una reestructuración organizativa importante fue su mayor desafío, por lo que recurrió a las estrategias de gestión del cambio que había aprendido a lo largo de su trayectoria profesional para ayudar a su equipo a trabajar de forma proactiva en esta rápida transición. Para esto fue importante comprender que no era necesario hacerlo por sí mismo, sino apoyarse en expertos en este espacio para ayudar.

"Los actuarios no pasan mucho tiempo pensando en los comportamientos y la gestión del cambio", dice. Somos pensadores sistémicos, pero existe una ciencia detrás de cómo las personas toman decisiones e interactúan entre sí. He trabajado con otros para impulsar a mi empresa a comprender este tipo de comportamientos para que nuestro equipo respalde estas nuevas estrategias organizativas y para reorientar la forma en que analizan los datos y comunican conocimientos. & Rdquo

En la actualidad, su equipo se centra en la interoperabilidad de datos, el modelado analítico avanzado y el aprendizaje automático causal para recopilar y compartir datos con hospitales, organizaciones de salud y miembros de manera más eficaz.

"Los problemas que intentamos resolver en el sector de la salud son similares a los que enfrentan otras industrias, como la reducción de costos, la mejora de la calidad y la creación de una mejor experiencia para el cliente", dice Patrick. & ldquoDon & rsquot nunca se defraude a sí mismo y al impacto que puede tener. Comprenda que existen grandes desafíos y que los actuarios tienen la capacidad de resolverlos. & Rdquo


Comprensión de los estilos de manejo de conflictos

En una disputa, a menudo es más fácil describir cómo responden los demás que evaluar cómo respondemos nosotros. Cada uno de nosotros tiene un estilo de conflicto predominante. Podemos comprender mejor el impacto que nuestro estilo de conflicto personal tiene en otras personas. Con una mejor comprensión, puede tomar una decisión consciente sobre cómo responder a los demás en una situación de conflicto.

Los científicos del comportamiento Kenneth Thomas y Ralph Kilmann, que desarrollaron el Instrumento de modo de conflicto Thomas-Kilmann, han identificado cinco estilos: competencia, colaboración, compromiso, evasión y acomodación. Ningún estilo de conflicto es intrínsecamente correcto o incorrecto, pero uno o más estilos pueden ser inapropiados o ineficaces para una situación determinada.

1. Competir

Valor del propio problema / objetivo: Elevado
Valor de la relación: Bajo
Resultado: Yo gano tu pierdes

Los competidores se muestran agresivos, autocráticos, confrontativos e intimidantes. Un estilo competitivo es un intento de ganar poder y presionar un cambio. Un estilo competitivo puede ser apropiado cuando tiene que implementar una decisión impopular, tomar una decisión rápida, la decisión es vital en una crisis o es importante que los demás sepan lo importante que es un problema para usted: "defender su derecho . " Sin embargo, las relaciones se dañan irremediablemente y pueden alentar a otras partes a utilizar métodos encubiertos para satisfacer sus necesidades.

2. Complaciente

Valor del propio problema / objetivo: Bajo
Relación de valor: Elevado
Resultado: Yo pierdo tu ganas

Los acomodadores dejan de lado sus propias necesidades porque quieren complacer a los demás para mantener la paz. Suavizar o armonizar puede resultar en una falsa solución a un problema y puede crear sentimientos en una persona que van desde la ira hasta el placer. Los acomodadores son inseguros y cooperativos y pueden desempeñar el papel de mártir, quejosos o saboteadores. Sin embargo, la acomodación puede ser útil cuando uno está equivocado o cuando desea minimizar las pérdidas para preservar las relaciones. Puede volverse competitivo - "Soy más amable que tú" - y puede resultar en una reducción de la creatividad y un aumento de los desequilibrios de poder.

3. Evitar

Valor del propio problema / objetivo: Bajo
Valor de la relación: Bajo
Resultado: Yo pierdo tu pierdes

Quienes evitan deliberadamente ignoran o se retiran de un conflicto en lugar de enfrentarlo. Los evasores no parecen preocuparse por su problema o los problemas de los demás. Las personas que evitan la situación esperan que el problema desaparezca, se resuelva por sí solo sin su participación o dependa de otros para que asuman la responsabilidad. La evasión puede ser apropiada cuando se necesita más tiempo para pensar y procesar, las limitaciones de tiempo exigen un retraso o el riesgo de confrontación no vale lo que se podría ganar. Sin embargo, la evasión es destructiva si la otra persona percibe que no te importa lo suficiente como para participar. Al no lidiar con el conflicto, este estilo permite que el conflicto hierva a fuego lento, lo que podría resultar en arrebatos de ira o negativos.

4. Compromiso

Valor del propio problema / objetivo: Medio
Valor de la relación: Medio
Resultado: Yo gano algo, tu ganas algo

Los comprometedores están dispuestos a sacrificar algunos de sus objetivos y persuadir a otros para que también renuncien a los suyos: dar un poco, recibir un poco. Los comprometedores mantienen la relación y pueden llevar menos tiempo que otros métodos, pero las resoluciones se centran en las demandas más que en las necesidades o los objetivos. El compromiso no tiene como objetivo hacer felices a todas las partes o encontrar una decisión que tenga más sentido comercial, sino que garantiza algo justo y equitativo incluso si causa una pérdida para ambas partes. El poder se define por lo que una parte puede coaccionar o hacer que la otra se rinda. Para dividir la diferencia, el juego puede resultar y el resultado es menos creativo e ideal.

5. Colaborando

Valor del propio problema / objetivo: Elevado
Valor de la relación: Elevado
Resultado: Yo gano tu ganas

La colaboración genera soluciones creativas que satisfacen las inquietudes y necesidades de todas las partes. Los colaboradores identifican las preocupaciones subyacentes, prueban los supuestos y comprenden las opiniones de los demás. La colaboración lleva tiempo y si la relación entre las partes no es importante, entonces puede que no valga la pena el tiempo y la energía para crear una solución en la que todos ganen. Sin embargo, la colaboración fomenta el respeto, la confianza y crea relaciones. Los colaboradores abordan el conflicto directamente y de una manera que exprese la voluntad de que todas las partes obtengan lo que necesitan.

En cualquier conflicto, pregunte: "¿Es mi estilo preferido de manejo de conflictos el mejor que puedo usar para resolver este conflicto o resolver este problema?"


¿Término para el comportamiento de transferir problemas personales a otras personas y tratar de resolverlos allí? - psicología

¿Qué es la psicología infantil?

La infancia y la niñez del ser humano son momentos llenos de diversión pero, sin embargo, la parte más imperativa de sus vidas. Estas son las edades más cruciales de cómo una persona se transformará en la adultez. Psicología Infantil, básicamente se ocupa de:

  • Comprender el patrón de comportamiento y desarrollo de un niño según el grupo de edad.
  • Se ocupa principalmente del desarrollo físico, social, emocional y cognitivo de un niño y sus desviaciones.
  • La psicología infantil se ocupa de cómo las circunstancias, los factores internos / externos, cambian a una persona, desde la infancia hasta la adultez.

¿Por qué realmente necesitamos saber lo que piensan los niños?

Un niño después de nacer alcanza muchos hitos en su vida, como sentarse, gatear, caminar, y estos son claramente visibles para todos nosotros. Pero hay muchos otros hitos como la capacidad de aprendizaje, la amabilidad social, el manejo de las emociones, el desarrollo de personalidades que pueden ser fácilmente anuladas por los padres. Aquí es donde surge la necesidad de comprender lo que piensa un niño, cómo se comporta, qué factores están provocando cambios en el comportamiento del niño.

Y ser padre, requiere un aviso. Observar cualquier tipo de desviación en la psicología normal y su tratamiento temprano puede ayudar al niño a convertirse en un adulto positivo y saludable.

Comprender lo que su hijo está pensando es una respuesta a muchos "por qué" que pueden surgir muy pronto. Todos, como padres, tratamos de comprender a nuestros hijos lo mejor que podamos. El cerebro de un niño crece a un ritmo muy rápido y experimenta numerosas emociones en conflicto y diferentes grupos de compañeros. Todo esto es nuevo para ellos y en este viaje necesitan un amigo, un guía en forma de sus padres.

Pero hay muchas ocasiones en las que podemos fallar en interpretarlas / sus acciones correctamente. Tales interpretaciones erróneas forman un juicio incorrecto de los niños en nuestras mentes y, a menudo, conduce a malas decisiones en nuestra parte de crianza. Estas decisiones equivocadas afectan negativamente a nuestros hijos en crecimiento y también afectarán la relación entre padres e hijos y la psicología del niño.

¡Apúntese a comprender el comportamiento del niño como padre en diez sencillos consejos!

Comprender las etapas cognitivas y emocionales de los niños:

Jean Piaget, un estimado psicólogo francés, compartió etapas del desarrollo cognitivo, que fueron una respuesta a lo que aprenden los niños en las distintas etapas y cómo reaccionan a los factores ambientales. Compartiendo un pequeño formulario tabular para ayudarlo a comprender la psicología infantil de una manera mucho mejor.

Las habilidades cognitivas, la memoria, la lógica, el razonamiento, la atención, las emociones, todas se desarrollan entre las edades de 2 a 7 años. Y esta es la razón principal por la que es importante que los padres comprendan lo que su hijo visualiza, piensa y trata de absorber en la vida.. Estos son los años formativos de la psicología infantil y el adulto resultante en el que se convertirá.

Etapas Etapa sensoriomotora Etapa preoperacional Etapa operativa concreta Etapa operativa formal
Siglos Nacimiento & # 8211 1,6 & # 8211 2 años 2-7 años (niñez y niñez temprana # 8211) 7-11 años 11 años o más (de la adolescencia a la edad adulta)
Factores de desarrollo Aprendizaje a través del tacto sensorial, tacto, visualización de objetos. Aquí aprenden a reaccionar según su entorno inmediato. Desarrollo de la imaginación, la creatividad, la memoria. Piense en las cosas de forma simbólica. Entender entre pasado y futuro. Pensando no completamente lógico Más aptitud lógica y de razonamiento. Los niños comienzan a volverse menos egocéntricos y comprenden que sus propios pensamientos pueden ser diferentes a los de los demás. Sea más consciente de los eventos externos Más fácil con resúmenes lógicos y científicos (álgebra, ciencia). Ahora pueden formular hipótesis, usar la lógica para resolver problemas.
Otros factores de investigación emocional Desarrolle emociones como alimentar, mecer, confiar en los cuidadores para brindar apoyo emocional bajo estrés. Exprese emociones como vergüenza, orgullo, alegría, ira. Expresa emociones en obras de teatro. Se puede ver un comportamiento empático y altruista Autorregular sus estados emocionales. Factores como el desarrollo cognitivo, las habilidades personales, la adaptación de los padres, los estilos de crianza, el entorno familiar y escolar, el comportamiento de los compañeros, la confianza en uno mismo y, por lo tanto, juegan un papel importante en el desarrollo social y emocional.

Factores que afectan la psicología infantil

Cada factor en el entorno de un niño impacta las mentes en crecimiento. En términos generales, estos se pueden dividir en 3 categorías:

1. Factores ambientales:

    • Explorando el espacio
    • Vivienda, Jardín, Parques
    • Comunidad de niños en lugares cercanos
    • Nutrición familiar, Dieta
    • Capacidades financieras de la familia
    • Relación familiar (monoparental, estrés familiar)
    • Crianza (con padres, niñera, guardería)
    • Educación, acceso a libros, aprendizajes prácticos
    • Socio y # 8211 Desarrollo emocional en la escuela

    2. Factores biológicos:

      • Niña o niño (los gráficos de aprendizaje varían)
      • Trato familiar y social
      • Trato de ambos sexos en la familia y el entorno
      • Salud del niño y la familia
      • Ambiente cálido y cariñoso
      • Comportamiento de los cuidadores del niño

      3. Relaciones interpersonales:

        • Apego hacia los padres / cuidador
        • Infancia receptiva
        • Amplias opciones para explorar
        • Estilos de crianza (autoritario, autoritario, permisivo o no involucrado)
        • Círculo social, amigos en la escuela y en casa

        El sentimiento, la comprensión y el intelecto de un niño es una combinación de todos estos factores. Sobre la base de un tejido complejo de factores similares, un niño llegará a un comportamiento específico.


        15 problemas típicos de la vida y cómo resolverlos.

        Todos nuestros problemas son iguales. Esta es la 156ª vez que escribo este hecho (para aquellos de ustedes que están contando).

        Los problemas son para siempre y no podemos evitarlos. Te despertarás mañana y tendrás problemas para desayunar. Subirá al tren y leerá un problema en la bandeja de entrada de su correo electrónico.

        ¡Llegarás a la oficina y tendrás un problema en tu cara bonita!

        Los problemas típicos a los que nos enfrentamos pueden resolverse.


        Respuestas & # 4013 & # 41 

        & # 42 Intente con un número de página más bajo.

        & # 42 Ingrese solo números.

        & # 42 Intente con un número de página más bajo.

        & # 42 Por favor ingrese solo números.

        Debe cancelar la suscripción de prueba instalada en la computadora y luego aceptar la solicitud enviada para instalar Office 365 a través de "Compartir suscripción".

        Para cancelar la suscripción, puede consultar el artículo mencionado a continuación que proporciona información sobre cómo cancelar la suscripción a Office 365:

        Una vez cancelada, inicie sesión en el sitio web www.Office.com/MyAccount con la cuenta de correo electrónico en la que se comparte la suscripción y siga las instrucciones en pantalla.

        Para más consultas, responda y estaremos encantados de ayudarle.

        Reportar abuso

        A 3 personas les resultó útil esta respuesta

        Genial & # 33 Gracias por tus comentarios.

        ¿Qué tan satisfecho está con esta respuesta? & # 63

        Gracias por sus comentarios, nos ayudan a mejorar el sitio.

        ¿Qué tan satisfecho está con esta respuesta? & # 63

        Hola,

        Debe cancelar la suscripción de prueba instalada en la computadora y luego aceptar la solicitud enviada para instalar Office 365 a través de "Compartir suscripción".

        Para cancelar la suscripción, puede consultar el artículo mencionado a continuación que proporciona información sobre cómo cancelar la suscripción a Office 365:

        http://office.microsoft.com/en-us/help/cancel-your-office-365-home-premium-subscription-HA103984711.aspx

        Una vez cancelada, inicie sesión en el sitio web www.Office.com/MyAccount con la cuenta de correo electrónico en la que se comparte la suscripción y siga las instrucciones en pantalla.

        Para más consultas, responda y estaremos encantados de ayudarle.

        Gracias.

        Había mirado esa página y traté de hacer exactamente eso, sin embargo, no hay una opción de cancelación de suscripción en la computadora portátil de mi hija. Consulte la captura de pantalla adjunta.

        Reportar abuso

        Genial & # 33 Gracias por tus comentarios.

        ¿Qué tan satisfecho está con esta respuesta? & # 63

        Gracias por sus comentarios, nos ayudan a mejorar el sitio.

        ¿Qué tan satisfecho está con esta respuesta? & # 63

        Hola,

        Debe cancelar la suscripción de prueba instalada en la computadora y luego aceptar la solicitud enviada para instalar Office 365 a través de "Compartir suscripción".

        Para cancelar la suscripción, puede consultar el artículo mencionado a continuación que proporciona información sobre cómo cancelar la suscripción a Office 365:

        http://office.microsoft.com/en-us/help/cancel-your-office-365-home-premium-subscription-HA103984711.aspx

        Una vez cancelada, inicie sesión en el sitio web www.Office.com/MyAccount con la cuenta de correo electrónico en la que se comparte la suscripción y siga las instrucciones en pantalla.

        Para más consultas, responda y estaremos encantados de ayudarle.

        Gracias.

        Había mirado esa página e intenté hacer exactamente eso, sin embargo, no hay una opción de cancelación de suscripción en la computadora portátil de mi hija. Consulte la captura de pantalla adjunta.

        También tengo el mismo problema, estoy tratando de compartir mi suscripción con las computadoras portátiles de mis 2 hijas que obtuvieron para Navidad.


        Referencias

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        Palabras clave: insight, etapas de resolución de problemas, impasse, modelo de cuatro etapas, problema de cinco cuadrados.

        Cita: Fedor A, Szathm & # x000E1ry E y & # x000D6llinger M (2015) Etapas de resolución de problemas en el problema de los cinco cuadrados. Parte delantera. Psychol. 6: 1050. doi: 10.3389 / fpsyg.2015.01050

        Recibido: 28 de enero de 2015 Aceptado: 09 de julio de 2015
        Publicado: 04 de agosto de 2015.

        Lorenza S. Colzato, Universidad de Leiden, Países Bajos

        Copyright & # x000A9 2015 Fedor, Szathm & # x000E1ry y & # x000D6llinger. Este es un artículo de acceso abierto distribuido bajo los términos de la Licencia de atribución Creative Commons (CC BY). Se permite el uso, distribución o reproducción en otros foros, siempre que se acredite al autor (es) original (es) o al licenciante y se cite la publicación original en esta revista, de acuerdo con la práctica académica aceptada. No se permite ningún uso, distribución o reproducción que no cumpla con estos términos.


        Como mujer que intenta luchar contra la misandria, me siento cansada y sola.

        Descargo de responsabilidad, esta es una perorata a medias, y definitivamente depende de mí tomar un descanso de Twitter.

        Es una experiencia extraña y solitaria tratar de defender los problemas del igualitarismo / hombres y # x27 como mujer, y me derrumbé un poco después de ser bombardeada en línea por tratar de expresar mis puntos de vista sobre estas cosas. De acuerdo, debería haberme dado cuenta de que la radfem con la que estaba hablando no cambiaría de opinión de todos modos y debería irme. Mi arrogancia se apoderó de mí.

        En pocas palabras, lo que debería haber sido una discusión sobre cómo la cultura misandista empeora la violencia masculina, y cómo los individuos violentos son un valor atípico del grupo en su conjunto, etc., se convirtió en una agotadora estadística de ir y venir para que yo pudiera mantenerme a flote. Estaba sobre mi cabeza. Este tipo de personas prefieren avergonzar y llamar a otras mujeres, incluso llamarlas misóginas antes de reconocer que hombres y mujeres son iguales. Y todos se afirmaron en su acuerdo.

        No es algo significativo, lo sé, para este sub. Es principalmente un sentimiento personal y envolvente que me alcanza, pero realmente me atrapó. He estado sentado pensando en la poca gente que está de acuerdo conmigo en la corriente principal. Acerca de cómo es tabú incluso discutir los derechos de los hombres de alguna manera. Es todo tan loco e irracional. No puedo concentrarme. He pensado en lo cansado que estoy de apoyar a un grupo del que no soy parte, pero luego me desanimo cuando me doy cuenta de que sus propias voces a menudo se consideran MENOS importantes que las mías en este tema.

        Espero que pronto la gente sea más receptiva y espero que todo esto sea una distorsión de la opinión popular en Internet. Estoy muy, muy cansado en este momento. Quiero que desaparezcan los sentimientos de mis propias hermanas que piensan que soy un traidor, un misandro o un escogido. Estoy sintiendo el peso en este momento.

        Podemos superar esto juntos, chicos y chicas. Pero primero una larga siesta, porque maldita sea.


        Trabajar con ancianos que han tenido accidentes cerebrovasculares

        Deborah L. Morawski,. Vanessa Jewell, en Terapia ocupacional con ancianos (cuarta edición), 2019

        Ajuste emocional

        Los COTA deben considerar el ajuste emocional de los ancianos a la discapacidad causada por el accidente cerebrovascular. La depresión, una reacción común a cualquier evento catastrófico, es una de las respuestas al accidente cerebrovascular menos diagnosticadas y no tratadas. 47,48 La depresión puede ser causada por un duelo natural que intenta hacer frente a la pérdida de la función, pero también puede ser causada por la ubicación de la lesión en el cerebro, antecedentes familiares o antecedentes de depresión y funcionamiento social antes del accidente cerebrovascular. Mild or major depression can develop from 2 months to 2 years after the stroke in up to 33% of clients. 47,48 Stroke survivors in the younger age groups between 25 to 54 years of age and 55 to 64 years of age may have higher incidence of depression. 49 Anxiety, poor frustration tolerance, denial, anger, and emotional lability are all signs that elders are struggling to deal with the reality of their condition. COTAs must listen empathetically and supportively, while sensitively maintaining the focus on areas of realistic recovery. Permitting elders to control choices in intervention as much as possible can reinforce the sense that they can affect their environments. Although a complete recovery cannot be guaranteed, neither can a lack of recovery. COTAs must honestly explain to elders that residual limitations will probably be present, but the best chance for recovery will occur by the practice of skills. COTAs should use their creativity and ingenuity skills to help elders adapt tasks or environments that elders consider lost, thus instilling new hope and motivation in the rehabilitation process. As with any area of intervention, family and social involvement is crucial for elders to accept residual limitations and maximize their residual abilities. Ultimately, elders must see that they can continue to be effective in some measure and can still actively pursue activities and ideals they valued highly before the stroke.

        Case Study

        Marcus is a 75-year-old man who recently returned home after having a left middle cerebral artery stroke. He had spent 3 weeks in an acute care hospital followed by 3 weeks in a rehabilitation center. The rehabilitation team concluded that, with the right supports, Marcus would be safe at home. At the time of discharge home, he had some residual weakness of the right side of his body, particularly the leg. He was able to flex the hip and knee against gravity, but continued to have the tendency to drag the foot when he walked. He still had some difficulties coordinating his right arm, and he tended to overreach with it, on occasion knocking objects off tables, counters, and shelves. The discharge report from the occupational therapists at the rehabilitation hospital indicated that Marcus was able to feed, toilet, and dress himself independently, although on occasion he became confused about the sequencing of dressing tasks.

        York, an OTR, and Nikki, a COTA, evaluated Marcus as part of the home-health team and noted that Marcus still had a slight decrease in tactile abilities with his right, dominant hand. They noted a slight droop in the right side of his face was still present, and that his lingual control toward the right side was also reduced. They confirmed that Marcus was able to dress and toilet himself but discovered that, although he had been able to shower himself in the hospital, at home this would require transferring into an old-fashioned bathtub. This tub was higher than the standard tub in which he had been evaluated at the hospital. York and Nikki determined that, without grab bars for safety, Marcus would need minimal to moderate assistance with his shower for safety.

        York and Nikki included an analysis of Marcus's home and supports in their intake evaluation. Marcus lived in a first floor apartment that had wooden floors. There were several floor rugs that Marcus had collected in his travels. The furniture was already arranged in a way that York and Nikki believed would not interfere with Marcus's safety. They noted that Marcus lived alone, although his younger brother visited every day and lived only a few blocks away. Up to the time of the stroke, Marcus had been driving his car to get to the grocery store and moved around independently in the community.

        Case study questions

        Should York and Nikki conduct any additional evaluations to determine Marcus's needs? What additional information should they consider before finalizing the intervention plan?

        What interventions should York and Nikki implement to help Marcus continue to make gains in his neuromuscular functions?

        What strategies should be considered to ensure Marcus's safety in the kitchen considering his remaining neuromuscular deficits?

        What precautions should be considered given Marcus's facial droop and limited lingual control?

        What safety measures should be considered in Marcus's home to ensure it is a safe environment for him?

        What alternatives for community access should be considered with Marcus?


        Term for behaviour of transfering personal problems to other people and trying to solve them there? - psicología

        It is an idea that many people are unfamiliar and uncomfortable with: might mental and physical illness be caused by spirits, disincarnate entities of various kinds? We live in a society where science has declared the invisible realms of spirits, angels and deceased souls are of fairy or fantasy books. But did they make a big mistake by doing so? People still report seeing and encountering spirits, ghosts, fairies and other spiritual creatures. Possession by spirit beings is still been reported, and in contrast to the movies it is not all evil. It is just a question of knowing what is going on and how to handle it. The following is based on accounts of different people who have successfully worked with identifying and liberating possessive spirits.

        The E-Syndrome is the title of a marvelous book (in Dutch) I read in the early 1990's. It was written by Roger Vanderdonck, a psychologist and clairvoyant, in Flanders, Belgium (he died in 1991). He discovered that certain people cannot be hypnotized or it is very difficult to hypnotize them. He discovered that a large percentage of those people were "possessed". The totality of their symptoms he called the E-Syndrome or Entity-Syndrome, what refers to the presence of one or more spirits with a particular person. He purposely did not advertise or publicize his own investigation in this matter. In this way his clients came to him from word of mouth. During two years he kept detailed notes and analyzed his findings to get a better understanding of the phenomenon. During this period he examined 1131 cases in which 921 had a 'presence'.
        The symptoms are not all the same and vary from person to person. The longer an entity has been with a person the greater the chance that the symptoms are present or that the symptoms are stronger. So what are the symptoms that can show up?
        1. Head complaints are very frequent, from a normal 'pressure', or 'band' around the head to headaches and migraines. Some 63% of his clients had this symptom.
        2. Neck complaints, also frequent (60%), often unilateral, with or without pain, stiffness of the muscles.
        3. Internal disorders, as with the digestive system, heart problems and breathing problems. Vanderdonck only took those symptoms into account that had no known origin.
        4. Depression and related symptoms (77%), from occasional dark thoughts with a pessimistic outlook on life to heavy depression.
        5. Suicide thought or attempts (23% of his clients). A high number of accidents are also a strong indication to the presence of an entity.
        6. Fatigued and being overly tired. It is rarely the cause of a visit to his practice because it is is almost always present (84%). When spirits don't make the transition to the Light, and remain here on earth, they do need to take in energy in order to sustain themselves, and this energy they get from a living person to which they attach themselves.
        7. Relationship problems or social problems.
        8. Other therapies don't work, classic or alternative. The entity often made it impossible for for the therapy to work.
        9. Rarely (less than 5%) there are direct signs for the presence of an entity. The patient feels a the presence of an entity in himself, or that an entity is always watching him, or is doing things he doesn't want to do, or is even physically pushed by an unseen entity. Other signs are: feeling a cold wind, hearing of sounds, seeing images, feeling pressure on the body and so on.
        10. Signal symptoms. The person adopts characteristics, behavior or habits (especially negative) of the entity that is possessing them. This can also be physical, like pain, or tics, or bad hearing or vision and so on. 94% of his clients had physical symptoms that the doctor was not able to find the physical cause for.
        Roger Vanderdonck developed a unique and effective diagnosis method to determine if a person has a spirit, or entity, attached to him. he calls it the swing-posture test. The client stands upright in a relaxed position. Vanderdonck first magnetized (magnetic 'passes') the person to reduce tensions. The patient looks at a point on the wall and is asked to drop down in a relaxed way, in whatever direction is natural to him. The patient knew that he would be immediately caught in the arms of Vanderdonck. From the way the person drops down it can be determined if there is an entity present. If the person drops backwards, there is no entity present. If the person drops forward there is an entity present. If the person drops to the right, there are two entities present or there is one clearly negative entity. When the entity drops to the left, then this is a signal of the the person's spiritual guide who wants to communicate or give a message to the person. After this initial test, Roger Vanderdonck verified his findings clairvoyantly.
        Another test he did was the feeling of the temperature of the person's neck, left and right. Some people, with an attached entity, complained of a big difference in temperature left and right in their neck. The left side was often much colder than the right side. The temperature on both sides would equalize after the treatment.
        Roger Vanderdonck also looked at the eyes of his clients. Their eyes were often pale, dull and 'veiled'. Eye problems were not uncommon.
        As Roger Vanderdonck was not only a psychiatrist but also a clairvoyant, he was able to find out what entity (or entities) were attached to a person. He found that the death of the entity always happened between the day of conception of the client and the day of the visit of the client to Vanderdonck. Yes, an entity can join a living person during its pregnancy, thus before birth. This is rarely the case, but it can happen. So what kind of rules did he find in this regard?
        1. Once an entity arrives at (=attaches to) a living person it can not leave by itself. It will only leave when that living person dies or when it is taken away. There is an exception to this rule, and that is when the entity goes from the mother to the child during pregnancy. A spirit of an aborted baby or miscarriage can stay with the mother, or can transfer on to the next child.
        Another exception is when a black magician put a curse on a person for the duration of generations (a family curse) by sending a dark entity to that person. That entity thus hops from one generation to another until it has been dealt with.
        2. In general the entity is from human descent, that is it was once a living human that died and crossed over to the hereafter. But Roger Vanderdonck found a couple of exceptions.
        One was that of a woman who had already been with two doctors, in vain. She said that something had 'fallen' on her that was exhausting her enormously. Vanderdonck clairvoyantly discovered that it was not a human but very strange creature that was attached to his client at her left side. It looked like a kind of red 'branch' or 'tree', twisted, with rough skin surface and a bunch of strange little extensions. When mentally contacting this creature it communicated that "I come from far away. I was lost. my fuel was gone. I fell on this planet. I took the first energy source I found. that was this life for here. I want to go to the red light." In two other cases he found the same kind of small figure in a kind of space suit, who were also taking away a lot of energy from the person they had attached themselves too.
        Another exception is the presence of 'the little people', that is dwarfs, kobolds, elves, nymphs and so on.
        In two cases he found an animal spirit, from an animal that the patient had known. In both cases there had been a strong emotional connection between patient and that animal.
        3. Usually the entity is a family member that they will recognize immediately when Roger Vanderdonck describes the entity. In some cases the patient did not recognize who the entity was, because the entity is a complete stranger to them, or the patient is too young, or the entity is from an earlier generation.
        4. The present entity seldom has a negative motivation to attach itself to the living person. The fact that the person is suffering from the attached entity, is because that entity is not on its place within the energy field of the person, and thus it is creating an imbalance, distortion or harm to the person. Although an entity, when it has just died, is concerned about a still living family member or just wants to find as place of comfort by attaching itself to a living person, this is an egotistic motive, although not recognized by the entity. Good intentions can do harm. Negative motives can also happen out of jealousy, hate, revenge and so on.
        5. Depending on the emotionality that once existed between the patient and the entity, it is usually a grandparent that is the attached entity. The we find parents and blood relatives who have died. Attachment by the spirits of aborted babies or miscarriages are rare, and it is often the emotionality that once existed between mother and the unborn baby that is a determining factor. Rarely is a deceased spouse the attached spirit.
        So far we have seen what kind of spirits can attach itself to a living person. How did Roger Vanderdonck liberate his patients from those spirits? He said that one way is asking the help of higher spiritual forces by prayer, offerings, ritual dances and so on. This is usual done for a group of people, not so much for one particular person. But this method is not that effective and even less controlled (churches f.e. usually don't check back on their followers).
        Exorcism also doesn't work. With exorcism the spirit is always seen as evil, and often called demon or devil. Vanderdonck said that only 6% of his clients had entities that were negatively motivated. Also, exorcism is only concerned about helping the person, not the attached entity. And with exorcism, the entity usually returns to the person. The reason for this is that the entity is not really evil but that the procedure of exorcism is itself a negative intention.
        Spiritism, when positively applied, releases spirits the Light. These are almost always spirits connected with a place, and not attached to a living person. These are also spirits that were not able to make the transition into the light.
        So, Roger Vanderdonck developed his own method that would help both the living person and the entity, and he had a 100% success with it. He did not want to bring harm to either the person or the entity, he did not want the entity to go to another disadvantageous place. He wanted the ritual to be effective immediately, and verifiable immediately afterwards. It had to be simple and he had to protect the person from being 'possessed' again. He discovered his method during his transcendental meditations, in which he frequently arrived at a scene in ancient Egypt where he saw a ritual to liberate entities. He saw that scene so frequently that he was able to write everything down in detail. At first he practiced the ritual in the presence of a clairvoyant medium, in order to check if it really worked. Once he knew it did work, he performed it without the medium. In his book he did not give all the details, because he thought that it demands a certain training and attitude, and should not be applied literally. He found out that the first ones who want to start with it are people who are not suitable and often not positively oriented. The right motivation is very important.
        The first requirement is to work in a special place that is protected, as is done in magic. He then called up the right atmosphere by calling the four elements, and the forces of the cosmos symbolized by the Egyptian Gods. After this he directed himself to the entity and explained to it its situation and that its presence with the patient causes a lot of problems for the patient, but that it is also problematic for itself. He explained the entity that it will be guided to the Light by the Gods. Vanderdonck could literally feel the soul of the entity slip through his hands when it was taken to the Light. At last all the energies and beings who have helped in the ritual were given thanks and the patients was protected against recurrence, but also against negativity and black magic. After the ritual has ended, he performed an immediately 'checkup' to verify if the entity was indeed gone. He added the black magic clause because he was being confronted with this kind of entities. One wonders if this might have been the cause of his untimely death just after he finished his book. Luckily he was able to train one person in his method, Paul Kervyn, who is now using this method in his practice at Nismes Viroinval (south of Charleroi) in Belgium. His contact information is: Paul Kervyn, Allee des Orchidees 2, 5670 Nismes - Viroinval telephone +32 (0)60 31.18.07
        and +32 (0)496 28.87.37 email: [email protected] .

        In old times, and even at present in some regions of the world, shamans have explained to us that illness was caused by malevolent or misguided spirits, and they based their practice on removing those entities from the patient. Almost every religion has its 'exorcists' who drive out the bad spirits. Only modern day science has rejected the idea of the existence of spirits interfering with our health. But there seems to be a change happening. Recently I found a book, Remarkable Healings, A Psychiatrist Discovers Unsuspected Roots of Mental and Physical Illness, by Shakuntala Modi, M.D. (published by Hampton Roads, ISBN 1-57174-079-1). She is part of a new generation of medical people who are changing their outlook on illness. One time, quite by accident, one of her patients spontaneously regressed to a previous life when asked to go to the root of her problems. Another patient described the root of her problems to be the spirit of her deceased father who was with her. He had died of stomach cancer. By staying with his daughter he unwillingly was transferring the stomach pain he had when he died to his daughter. Trying to solve this new problem, Modi asked the patient if she could see anything else. The patient reported seeing a bright white light and angels coming to help to help her deceased father to make the transfer to the Light. Since then Modi has regressed her patients and asked them to go to the cause of their problems. Once the problem was found and dealt with, the patient's illness disappeared quickly. Modi was quite astonished by the high success rate she had with this new unorthodox method, with the classic therapy methods she had been having very little success.
        With some people Modi uses hypnosis to have them look inside for the cause of their ailments, with others she uses a couple of other techniques. Some people spontaneously regress to other lives or can see the spirits inside. Modi then conversed with those spirits through the patient, this is where all the information comes from. Modi herself does not form an opinion about the existence of past lives or spiritual entities. For her it is more important that the method works, and her patients get better quickly.
        Although you can find other books about the same subject, Modi's book is very interesting because it is comprehensive (631 pages!), well structured and with many case histories. So, what does she tell about the cause of mental and physical illness? The following is a summary of what her patients told her Modi herself did not come up with it.
        Some illnesses are caused by traumas in this life or in past lives. This includes birth traumas and prenatal traumas. Re-living the traumatic event, the more emotional the more effective, releases the blocked energy and healing can be instantaneous, or it happens in the next few days.
        Her patient's illnesses were usually caused by possessing or attached spirits. The pain and emotions these spirits were going through when they died, is transferred, willingly or unwillingly, to the living person they are now attached to, or posess. In these cases medical treatment does not help. Modi calls these spirits 'earthbound spirits' as they did not make the transition to heaven or to the Light after they died. For some reason, often family ties, they chose to stay with a living person. Sometimes they are confused, sometimes they stay with the living person out of love, sometimes out of the desire to take revenge, sometimes they want to continue their desire to experience drugs, or other addictions through the person they posses.
        Some spirits are really malevolent, they are usually called dark or evil spirits, demons, devils. These are beings who have turned themselves away from the Light and derive pleasure from harming both other spirits and living beings. We have to be careful not to condemn these beings as they are also light beings, or angels as you could call them, who have covered up their inner divine light with darkness. When called upon, other angels come and will force the dark spirit to look inside. This will allow him to discover his inner light and thereby be transformed into a light being, at the same time leaving the patient. This is not exorcism. Exorcism is the forceful removal of a dark spirit from a person, but this will always fail or even cause more trouble as the dark entity is not transformed and remains the same. So the treatment of the patient is actually a treatment of the entities that posses or are attached to the patient. They have to be convinced about what they are doing to the patient, about what they really are and that going to the Light is the best solution for them.
        Aside from the dark spirits, or demons, the patients also quite frequently talk about Satan, a term many people might have trouble with. Satan is a term that comes from the Catholic Church. From what Modi's patients tell, Satan seems to be the embodiment of the most evil things. One can easily give him another name derived from other religions or you can make one up for yourself. He seems to be a master demon, who tricks many souls into the darkness.
        Patients also report how negative entities create dark energy shields around a person, dark devices that are placed inside the person and dark energy cords by which they can influence the person from a 'distance'. Interesting ideas, as I have once seen pictures of a person who was being influenced by black magic. On these pictures (snapshots inside his house) there were several luminous cords attached to him.
        Another problem patients report is the loss of soul parts. One or more pieces of their soul had been lost over time, mostly stemming from traumas in this life or from past lives. The loss of soul parts is another of those old ideas one finds in the practice of shamans. Somehow a piece of our energy can remain behind and stuck with other people or places. The soul parts need to be retrieved, cleansed, healed and integrated again with the main body of our soul. Sometimes a part has come in the possession of an evil spirit who uses it to inflict harm on the person, as the person still remains connected with that soul part, wherever it might be. It is also possible for a person to have a soul part of another person, which also can cause problems to the person who has that soul part.
        Although the dark entities, demons and Satan claim to have great power, they are easily controlled, released and transformed by the appearing angels. It seems that they only have as much power as we are giving them. Through Modi's patients, the archangels gave instructions for a protection prayer (go here). As human beings we are vulnerable to emotional and physical traumas, emotional outburst and environmental influences that all can cause a weakened body and soul, making it vulnerable to dark entities. But we can master our emotions. Dark entities feed and stimulate negative emotions in us. We have a choice to react on a situation with increased anger, hate etc. or not. Somebody who lets his negative emotions run free, is also attracting a lot of dark entities. We can protect ourselves a great deal by the way we live, feel and think. We can heal ourselves by resolving our traumas. For the rest we can ask protection from the angels.
        From what her patients told her, Modi has built a basic structure of the universe. In their therapy sessions they have frequently experienced a huge Light that they describe as God who is an ocean of Light and love. Then there are a number of large divine beings, described as godheads, masters, and oversouls. I found their descriptions very similar to what the Gnostics called the Aeons (see my Gnosticism article). They can appear in the form of religious masters. Under them are the angels and other light beings. Every living being is connected to God by a energy cord. Humans go through a process of incarnations, by which they live their physical lives being influenced by both good and dark forces, and spend their afterlives (between births) in realms of light. We are here to learn about ourselves and the universe and to eventually reunite with what we call God, or the Divine. Some beings have decided to go against the natural flow of the Divine in its creation and have become the dark spirits, the demons, Satan. They too will eventually be transformed into light beings and reunite with God.

        Daskalos, also called the Magus of Strovolos, a Greek magician-healer-shaman, has become known to the West in a series of books by Kyriacos C. Markides. His knowledge is based on Western traditions and on his own experiences as a spiritually gifted person. His ideas about possession by spiritual entities gives us additional information. Daskalos says that people become possessed by elementals (=etheric beings created by our own thoughts and/or emotions) which they themselves have created as a result of their weakness. In contrast to Shakuntala Modi, Daskalos only rarely encounters possession by beings who reside in the etheric world. Maybe this is because Daskalos works with the local population, while Modi as a psychiatrist works specifically with mentally ill patients. At times her patients might mistake the artificial, self created elementals for real spirits.
        Deceased humans often hold on to their hate towards particular people or situations when they pass to the next world. This is the cause of them finding themselves oscillating between the physical and the divine world. It allows them to come into contact with the physical world again and again by taking possession of living human beings who have certain phobias or who are in a certain psychological state that permits those spirits to enter the person. One needs to understand that possession, be it by a demon, elemental, or a deceased human, can take place only if there are reasons, that is, when the individual vibrates analogously with whoever or whatever tries to enter him. In other words the person must himself have the predisposition to be possessed.
        The most difficult type of possession to cope with, Daskalos says, is by deceased humans. They have a particular persistence. It is not easy to send them away. And you cannot destroy or dissolve them. They are eternal beings and cannot be destroyed.
        About demons, Daskalos says that they, like the rest of creation, evolve too and will one day be part of the Holy Spirit (the Light). "Humans are afraid of demons because they are invisible. Had they not been so, men would have exploited them like other animals." A surprising statement! Demons can take ugly animal-like shapes but can also acquire the shape of human beings as they can adapt themselves to whatever they see they are like chameleons of form. Demons have no genitals, they are usually dark and sometimes even handsome.
        Daskalos explains that demons and angels are both emanations of archangelic forces. In themselves neither demons nor angels are eternal beings. They are elementals of the archangelic force which is projecting them. Human beings also are capable of creating both demonic and angelic elementals. Demons are archangelic emanations in the negative side of existence in order to create the realms of separateness. The archangel Lucifer is down here to create the opposite side of energy and power in order to bring balance. The purpose of this Evil is to create for us more sharply the meaning of Good.
        Man is allowed to create both demonic or angelic elementals. Archangels can only create angelic elementals, but Lucifer can only create demons. Demons posses a form of subconsciousness that enables them to converse with humans. One can reason with a demon but not with an angel because an angel is an unshakable law. An angel cannot deviate from his divine purpose. A demon opposes the work of the angel and can influence man. Once a demon attaches himself to a human being, he acts along with him, using the logic of man, regardless of the fact that it may be a form of unreason. An angel cannot do that. An angel has no choice but to do good. A demon cooperates with man and therefore absorbs part of his experience. The angel expresses the love of his archangel uncolored. A demon expresses within the realm of separateness the love of his own archangel which is sentimentality. That is why a demon can more easily get attached to a human than an angel. The angel can only create blindly, fully, and beautifully through the Holy Spirit. The demon does everything that man does.
        In contrast to what most believe, Daskalos says that angels and demons are not in conflict. They only appear to be so in human consciousness. But in fact they cooperate. They take different positions within the subconscious of the individual in order to make it possible for us to know the meaning of good and evil.
        We mentioned a couple of times that angels and demons are actually elementals. What does the term 'elemental' mean? Elementals are beings not created by the Divine, they were and are created 'artificially' by the archangels or by man. Elementals have a life of their own and can have an existence independent of the one who projected them. Any thought and any feeling that an individual projects is an elemental. That is why it is so important to watch your emotions, or feelings, and thoughts. There are actually two kinds of elementals: those that are projected subconsciously, which Daskalos calls 'desires-thoughts', and those consciously constructed and called 'thought-desires'. 'Desires-thoughts' are made by a person who lives primarily by his emotions (most people are like this). 'Thought-desires' are made by a person who lives primarily by his thoughts. These are more powerful and last longer.
        As most people live by their emotions, they produce 'desire-thought' elementals, but those people also lack understanding of the nature of desire and thought. Consequently they often fall prey to the very elementals they have created. Nature determines that these elementals will eventually return to the person who created them. (Once again, watch your emotions and thoughts!) When they return they surface from the pool of memory to the conscious level in order to acquire new energy, and then withdraw again. The same cycle is repeated until such elementals succeed in staying within the subconscious of the person on a more permanent basis. They then absorb energy from the etheric double (=our life-energy body) of the individual and in this manner they extend their life. This is how habits and obsessions such as smoking, gambling, and drinking are formed.

        There are people who, involved in the esoteric, wicca, or magic, often display an interest in the spirit world. A mere interest is ok, but one should not venture into it when one is not an accomplished psychic. The spirit world is not an innocent playground. How do you distinguish between good and evil entities? Here are some guidelines from Seizan Fukami, a renown Japanese Psychic, who wrote a couple of interesting books about the matter (Exorcism, isbn4-88692-282-1 and Divine World, isbn4-88692-318-6, available by Tachibana Shuppan Inc, Japan.
        One of the distinguishing features of superior spirits is that they very seldom interfere with human beings or affairs in the material world. They do not go around telling people what to do or not, where to go or when. Instead of bossing, they usually lay the groundwork in secret so that people will end up doing what they want them to do anyhow. The reason is that these superior beings have been entrusted with the education of us human beings. And pampering a person or diverting him from blind alleys in the end hampers a person's effort to gain experience and grow. Such coddling might even prevent a person from accomplishing his mission in life. The duty of these superior beings is to make sure that the people entrusted in their care have the opportunity to gain learning, training and desirable character traits.
        When a person prays for something that will jeopardize the maturation of his inner being, the superior being watching out for him will turn a deaf ear to his pleas. They will be totally unbending and not lift a finger. But if the request involves spiritual growth, than they will be more than willing to help. These superior beings have a highly evolved sense of of learning, training, spiritual enlightenment and wisdom. The always respect our free will.
        Evil spirits do not give a damn about the spiritual growth of people. They only act as parasites by inhabiting or being attached to a person's body. They are solely concerned with manipulating the person as they see fit. The inferior spirits indulge in unbridled passions and egotism. Unlike the superior beings, they do not have the capability to assimilate things of value. They lack the abilities to explain things or place things in their proper perspective that derive from learning. All they know is what is right in front of them and they live from moment to moment. These spirits regret the fact that they do not have a body of their own, so they want to take charge of a living person's body. Consequently, they are always on the alert, eager to discover a crack in some person's spiritual armor, so that they can go rushing in. They often lie about who they are, pretending to be some well known historic person, or god or goddess. They do not respect our free will and like to interfere and manipulate.

        We already mentioned that spirits, demons, or negative energies attach themselves to us because there is a corresponding vibration within us that makes such attachment possible. It depends on what attitudes, emotions and thoughts we cultivate and carry around, and what karma we have inherited from the past.
        Daskalos proclaims that our present personalities, and the circumstances within which we live, are the sum total of the elementals we have constructed ever since our descent into the physical world and the beginning of our cycle of incarnation. How do we get rid of the negative elementals that we have created and that keep coming back to us, stimulating more negative emotions and thoughts in us? By indifference! When negative emotions or thoughts come up in a given situation, just notice that they are there, but do not repress them nor express them. Be indifferent to them. This way they will get no more energy from us, and will be neutralized. Either they get dissolved or they float away in the etheric sphere where they will be picked up by others who are attracted to them.
        Fukami stresses that one should believe in one's good personality characteristics, because these represent the real you. The traits that are dragging you in a negative direction are false and often are influences from evil spirits. In this way you will distance yourself from thoughts that you don't really want in the first place, and you will become self-reliant, believing in the real you which is always positive. This way evil spirits will be driven away. It demands strong faith but also good physical health. One cannot neglect his physical health, as mind and body go together. Be healthy, have positive thoughts, positive emotions a positive attitude.